Shonen Matsumura studied entomology and received a science doctorate and an agriculture doctorate. Believing that the elucidation of entomological phenomena was necessary in order to develop agriculture and forestry, Matsumura advanced taxonomical research, and laid the foundations for entomological taxonomy in Japan. He named around 1,200 indigenous Japanese insects. The Daisetsuzan Mountains are home to four species of butterflies (such as Parnassius eversmanni and Oeneis melissa) designated as natural monuments. These were all new species or new subspecies announced by Matsumura in 1926. Matsumura discovered butterflies of the same or similar species in polar regions and high altitude regions, marking an important finding in biogeographical research. After producing a succession of books and papers, Matsumura was said to have far exceeded himself. In 1934, he resigned from Hokkaido Imperial University and became an honorary professor. In 1950, he became a member of the Japan Academy. In 1954, he received the Order of Cultural Merit. He died in 1960. He received the Order of the Sacred Treasure.
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